How to complain against a university to UGC in India?

The UGC has taken a very important step to listen the problems of the students in very transparent way using its new designed Portal. 
To lodge a compliant follow the following steps:
2. Click on Student Corner.
3. Here you need to register first and login through this portal.
4. After successfully login, you need to update your personal information.
5. Next you have to provide information about your university and the detail of the problem you are facing.

What is the minimum time to complete PhD?

The minimum duration of PhD is 3 years including Course Work and the maximum term is 6 years. However the term can be exceeded in some cases.
The duration of Course Work is 6 months which is mandatory for every Scholars, however the students with the MPhill background or students who have done course work earlier can be exempted from the Course Work.
The students who are exempted from the Course Work, have also to devote a minimum term of 3 years for his PhD completion.
After the completion of course work, the scholars have to submit his synopsis for the research for the registration of his topic.
After a suitable time, the Scholar has to submit his synopsis after the course work. The deadline is provided by the university to submit the synopsis. After 18 months of submission of the synopsis, the scholars can submit his thesis, but the overall minimum term of his PhD is 3 years.

From UGC website.

Can I change my PhD supervisor?

Yes you change your PhD Supervisor at some generous cases. Let's understand some cases:
If your topic is get registered under a Supervisor. After that you can't change your your supervisor normally. Although you can be provided a Co- Supervisor.
You can change your supervisor if some think happens like the death of your supervisor, or your supervisor leaves the country.
Although Supervisor can be changed on the mutual understanding of both supervisor( new one and old one) under the proper conditions of DRC of the university. This step seems difficult but not impossible.

What to do if your PhD supervisor leaves the university?

If your PhD Supervisor leaves the university, here are the following possibilities you can do or your university can do for you. These possibilities vary from one university to another university.
The possibilities are as under:

  • You would be provided another Supervisor. It might affect your research. If you have passed much time with the past supervisor, then probably it would not be recommended to get under another supervisor. It is better to continue research with past one. It depends on you how you interact with him.
  • You can shift to another university with your supervisor after getting a NOC from the present university. You can also migrate if both the universities agree and afterward you will be awarded degree from the new University.

What is the relation between Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence? | What is the relation between Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Relation between IoT and AI

The future of IoT is AI.
IoT is just interconnection of two or more things using Internet. These things might be an electronic device, a person, a non- living things, etc. We can make them able to communicate with one another using the concept of IoT. For example, a person can control his mobile, Television, Refrigerator, Air Conditioner remotely using the internet facility.
Did you notice one thing in the above definition defining the IoT? In IoT there is need to command the things to take a action because the things lacks intelligence. Artificial Intelligence comes into role in these circumstances.
Artificial Intelligence is the process to intrude artificial intelligence to the things so that the things could be able to take the decision their self. for example, Machine should be able to recognize the mood of the person and play the suited songs. Machine Learning is an approach to achieve the Artificial Intelligence.

What is the relation between Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Machine Learning is an approach to achieve Artificial Intelligence. You can also say that ML is subset of AI. The techniques of Machine Learning are exploited to achieve the Artificial Intelligence.

Types of Machine Learning Techniques: 

  • Supervised Learning
  • Unsupervised Learning
  • Reinforcement Learning
  • Deep Learning

List of the basic components required for IoT (Internet of Things)

MCU and Internet Shields:
1. Arduino UNO --- 1
2. Arduino NANO ---- 1 (Optional)
3. NodeMCU 1.0 -- 3
4. Arduino Ethernet Shield -- 1
5. ESP8266 -- 1 (Optional)
Components/Sensors/Sensor Shields:
6. LED (Green x 3, Red x 3, Yellow x 1)
7. LDR -- 1
8. Temperature Sensor (LM35 or TMP36) -- 1
9. 4 digit 7 segment display
11. PIR Motion Sensor -- 1
12. Sound Sensor Board --- 1
13. 12V1A \ 5V1A fully isolated switching power supply / AC-DC modules / 220V switch 12v 5v lose-lose (C4B1) -- 2
14. 2 channel relay module with opto isolation supports high and low trigger 5V--- 2
15. Generic PCB with bus lines ---- 2
16. Casing -- 3 ( one example below)
17. Soldering KIT
18. 220 ohm resistor (Color bands:REDREDBROWN) x 10
19. 10k resistor (Color bands: BROWNBLACKORANGE) x 10
20. RJ45 cable -- 1
21. Breadboard -- 1
22. USB cable (to connect Arduino UNO to PC) -- 1
23. Micro USB (to connect NodeMCU to PC) -- 1
24. Breadboard wires (male to male 40, male to female 40, female to female 40)
Learning Phase:
MCU and Internet Shields:
1. Arduino UNO --- 1
2. Arduino NANO ---- 1 (Optional)
3. NodeMCU 1.0 -- 1
4. Arduino Ethernet Shield -- 1
5. ESP8266 -- 1
Components/Sensors/Sensor Shields:
6. LED (Green x 3, Red x 3, Yellow x 1)
7. LDR -- 1
8. Temperature Sensor (LM35 or TMP36) -- 1
9. 4 digit 7 segment display
11. PIR Motion Sensor -- 1
12. Sound Sensor Board --- 1
13. 2 channel relay module with opto isolation supports high and low trigger 5V--- 1
Product 1:
NodeMCU, Relay, Power supply, Generic PCB, LDR, casing*
Product 2:
NodeMCU, Relay, Power Supply, Generic PCB, PIR sensor, casing*
Product 3:
NodeMCU, LED, Battery pack(4.5v), casing*
*Accessories will be common to all products

Ardino UNO
The Arduino Uno is an open-source microcontroller board based on the Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller and developed by The board is equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. The board has 14 Digital pins, 6 Analog pins, and programmable with the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) via a type B USB cable. It can be powered by the USB cable or by an external  9-volt battery, though it accepts voltages between 7 and 20 volts. It is also similar to the Arduino Nano and Leonardo.
NodeMCU 1.0
NodeMCU is an open source IoT platform. It includes firmware which runs on the ESP8266 Wi-Fi SoC from Espressif Systems, and hardware which is based on the ESP-12 module.
Arduino Ethernet Shield
The Arduino Ethernet Shield allows you to easily connect your Arduino to the internet. This shield enables your Arduino to send and receive data from anywhere in the world with an internet connection.
A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor. The resistance of a photoresistor decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A photoresistor can be applied in light-sensitive detector circuits, and light-activated and dark-activated switching circuits.
A relay is an electrically operated switch that can be turned on or off, letting the current go through or not, and can be controlled with low voltages, like the 5V provided by the Arduino pins.
A printed circuit board (PCB) is an electronic circuit used in devices to provide mechanical support and a pathway to its electronic components.
A breadboard is used to build and test circuits quickly before finalizing any circuit design. The breadboard has many holes into which circuit components like ICs and resistors can be inserted.
Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit, or IC, is small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory. An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors.
Transistors are semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals.
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. It is designed to add capacitance to a circuit.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.

All about journals and research paper | What is impact factor? | how the impact factor is calculated? | who calculate the impact factor? Scopous journals

Figure 1: One of my Research Papers When the Scholars are in their Master or PhD or in any research field. They are supposed to writ...