Access Modifiers in Java

Access Modifiers in Java

There are two types of modifiers in Java:

  1. Access modifier
  2. Non-Access modifiers.

The access modifiers specify the accessibility or scope of a field, method, constructor, or class.

There are four types of Java access modifiers:

  1. Private: The access level of a private modifier is only within the class. It cannot be accessed from outside the class.
  2. Default: The access level of a default modifier is only within the package. It cannot be accessed from outside the package. If you do not specify any access level, it will be the default.
  3. Protected: The access level of a protected modifier is within the package and outside the package through child class. If you do not make the child class, it cannot be accessed from outside the package.
  4. Public: The access level of a public modifier is everywhere. It can be accessed from within the class, outside the class, within the package and outside the package.

There are many non-access modifiers, such as static, abstract, synchronized, native, volatile, transient, etc. Here, we are going to learn the access modifiers only.

1) Private

The data fields are declared as private access modifier are accessible only within the class.

Simple example of private access modifier:

In this example, we have created two classes A and Simple. A class contains private data member and private method. We are accessing these private members from outside the class, so there is a compile-time error.

class A{ 

private int data=40; 

private void msg(){

System.out.println("Hello java");} 

}    

public class Simple{ 

 public static void main(String args[]){ 

   A obj=new A(); 

   System.out.println(obj.data); //Compile Time Error 

   obj.msg(); //Compile Time Error 

   } 

} 

 Note: A class cannot be private or protected except nested class.

2) Default

If you don't use any modifier, it is treated as default by default. The default modifier is accessible only within package. It cannot be accessed from outside the package.

 Example of default access modifier

In this example, we have created two packages pack and mypack. We are accessing the A class from outside its package, since A class is not public, so it cannot be accessed from outside the package.

package pack; 

class A{ 

  void msg(){

System.out.println("Hello");} 

} 

//save by B.java 

package mypack; 

import pack.*; 

class B{ 

  public static void main(String args[]){ 

   A obj = new A();//Compile Time Error 

   obj.msg();//Compile Time Error 

  } 

} 

In the above example, the scope of class A and its method msg() is default so it cannot be accessed from outside the package.

3) Protected

The protected access modifier is accessible within package and outside the package but through inheritance only.

Example of protected access modifier

In this example, we have created the two packages pack and mypack. The A class of pack package is public, so can be accessed from outside the package. But msg method of this package is declared as protected, so it can be accessed from outside the class only through inheritance.

 package pack; 

public class A{ 

protected void msg(){

System.out.println("Hello");} 

} 


package mypack; 

import pack.*; 

 class B extends A{ 

  public static void main(String args[]){ 

   B obj = new B(); 

   obj.msg(); 

  } 

} 

Output:Hello

4) Public

The public access modifier is accessible everywhere. It has the widest scope among all other modifiers.

 Example of public access modifier

 package pack; 

public class A{ 

public void msg(){System.out.println("Hello");} 

} 


 

package mypack; 

import pack.*; 

 

class B{ 

  public static void main(String args[]){ 

   A obj = new A(); 

   obj.msg(); 

  } 

} 

Output:Hello


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